ME: Feels like I am flying, all the places in my head. Everywhere I go , show me where to go. One of us was on safari all day then drove 3 hours at 5am to catch early flight from joburg to Namibia.
The other was out at a club till almost 5am enjoying Afrikan fashion week and got 1 hour of sleep to wake up and get on the same flight to Namibia. Both of us arrived here in Namibia apart of the MaidenVoyageNamibia trip and the scenery was so amazing we couldn't sleep.
So we sat on the patio with the ocean behind us and kicked it so great to unplug with my brother dnice stay tuned. I rolled from All 3 Coasts a3cfestival to the 1st Coast. Also this how you act when your father is in another country and your allowed to go to the chrisbrownofficial concert on a school night.
Throwback Wednesday on the picture but so much backstory to be told about this picture but not now. Also happy birthday to my guy shawnpecas more life and progress to you. The celebration continues meet me in traffic somewhere in the world.
Yes I am sitting down during the festival. Shortly after demonstrating his successes to the world, Shaka received news that his father had recently died.
Wasting no time, he, after securing Dingiswayo's permission, marched up to the Chieftain's throne, butchered its weak-willed occupant his own half-brother , and installed himself as king. He then butchered nearly everyone who had ever wronged him or his mother who went wherever Shaka went. Next he turned on his mother's tribe, the eLangeni, impaling all those that had wronged him as a child. Shaka spent the next couple of month's subjugating or destroying the neighboring armies, and gradually increasing the size of his army.
Dingiswayo called upon Shaka to participate in a campaign with him against a rebellious chief of the Ndwandwe named Zwide and Shaka , who did not have enough troops to challenge the great king, was forced to oblige.
Dingiswayo had a major problem in that he was too generous and forgiving, even letting Zwide off the hook when the man killed his son, and beat him and let him go two times, much to Shaka's chagrin. Zwide did not possess such courtesy, and the one time he managed to capture his rival he had him executed. Shaka's troops were only just able to prevent a full-scale rout.
A mass civil war soon broke out for Dingiswayo's empire. With a force of around , he marched on Shaka's 4,, intent to finish the upstart king off for good.
Falling back to the White Mfolozi river, he ordered the majority 4, troops to hold off the enemy as long as possible, before falling back to Gqorkli Hill. Crossing a heavily defended river without bridges is a difficult task, and Shaka's men were able to inflict a great amount of causalities on Zwide's men commanded by his son, Nomohlonjana before being forced to retreat.
Shaka meanwhile had stationed a reserve force in a shallow depression on the southern portion of the hill the Ndwande advanced from the North before stockpiling the hill with food, water, oxen, and firewood. He also had his men burn down much of the surrounding area, so the Ndwande couldn't forage for supplies. Having now crossed he river at a great cost, Nomohlonjana was thirsty for Zulu blood.
With his 7, men, he formed a semi-circle around the hill, and advanced upon the 2, strong Zulu front line. Unfortunatly for him he and his men hadn't gotten the memo about javelins not being effective against the tactics and heavy shields of the Zulus, and Shaka's men cut great swabs of them down in close quarters combat. In the thick of the battle, Shaka had some of his men lead the cattle away, a ruse that the hungry Nomohlonjana fell for, dividing his force in an attempt to capture the oxen for provisions.
The rather inept Ndwande had forgotten to stockpile water, and many more of his warriors dispersed to find some. He began attacking in waves, to which the crafty Shaka responded by alternating his men so that his force was always fresh. At no time were the Ndwande aware of how many men Shaka had. Getting frustrated, Nomohlonjana tried to have his men feign retreat, only for his sandal-wearing men get run down by Shaka's sandal-less , and a fake rout turned into a real one.
Now at wits end Nomohlonjana formed a yards wide giant column of men, and sent it straight towards Shaka's front line. This gave Shaka the golden opportunity to deploy his "buffalo horns" formation, and he succeeded in enveloping the Ndwande force, and utterly destroying it. Nomohlonjana and four of his brothers five of Zwide's sons! Biography: Continued The Zulu King in his prime Zwide was of course pissed by this news, and after gathering an army of over 14, men he made a bull rush for Shaka's army, making sure to adopt his weapons and armor along the way so his forces wouldn't be screwed in close quarters again.
While Zwide may have brought his army on par with Shaka's equipment wise, he could never do the same in the tactical field, and Shaka whittled down Zwide's army through guerrilla hit and run style attacks. His most terrifying tactic took place at night time, when Shaka and his men infiltrated the Ndwande while they slept and butchered them.
By the time the alarm was finally raised hundreds, if not thousands, of Ndwande lay dead, and many more routed. Not long after Shaka took advantage of a moment of weakness in the Ndwande army when it was temporarily split in two and utterly destroyed it. By , he had won the war, and extended his kingdom over much of South Africa.
Astonishingly he actually ended the war with more troops then he had when he entered it, as he gave every defeated army a choice to "Join or Die". By the end of his life he had over 25, soldiers, which is again astonishing given that he entered with less then Shaka however was one of history's greatest warmongeres, and was never satisfied with what he had.
Like Alexander he sent men far and wide to conquer new lands, keeping his people in a near constant state of war. Around this time the Zulu's first encountered the British Settlers, and Shaka had the good sense to form trade ties with them. Though he was disdainful of firearms, believing that hsi warriors could overwhelm them while they reloaded, that did not stop him from planning to acquire and train some of his men with them in the near future though negotiations with the British over this collapsed.
Even these brave Zulus are a far cry from the Impis Shaka had While a genius of war, at home this man was a cruel tyrant and frequently executed people for the most frivolous of reasons. Not even his own family was saved, and Shaka killed any children he had out of fear that they would dethrone him one day. When his mother died a woman who Shaka may have worshiped , Shaka lost his mind. Shaka was demented with grief and ordered a few thousand people executed in memory of his mother.
Somehow people were slaughtered. He furthermore, demanded that his tribe go on a fast to commemorate Nandi, and ordered no new crops to be planted and for every calf to have its mother killed, so it could know what the death of a mother felt like.
Though he eventually came to his senses and rescinded these declarations, the damage was done. Taking advantage of the absence of his armies all of which he sent off on campaign , on 22 September , his bodyguard Mbopha, and his half-brothers Dingane and Mhlangana, stabbed Shaka near his military barracks at Dukuza.
You kill me, thinking you will rule, but the swallows will do that. While it wouldn't shatter chain, the lack of padding underneath Roman chain means that the blow could cause trauma to the organs, through the mail.
Zulus used to hunt with throwing clubs, so they could possess a skill bonus here as well. To do so otherwise could net them a accusation of cowardice, which could be fatal. In combat it could be used to both thrust and slash, or in an emergency situation as a throwing weapon.
Part 2 of the 10 part epic. The head of a Knobkerrie. Shaka's weapon of choice. The Isizene or "commoners axe". Zulu Isisilia. Henry Flynn and George Francis Farewell, respectively. The expedition would have been rather small, perhaps as few as men, and would have truly been a "rare" but prominent sight in the Zulu armies.
The staple weapon of these men was the Indian Pattern Brown Bess. Prior to this, this pattern was developed and adopted by the armies of the East India Company, hence the name. Throughout the Napoleonic Wars nearly 3 million of these brown bess muskets were manufactured and distributed to Britain's infantry regiments.
The only change in their manufacture during this period was the switch from a swan-necked cock to a reinforced style in Aside from being a pound lighter and 3 inch shorter barrel, the main differences from the previous "Short Land" pattern and the India pattern were ones of style removal of the thumb plate and only three pipes for the ramrod instead of four.
Because of the numbers manufactured, this pattern saw use as late as in the British army and militia. Could be fitted with a bayonet. Farewell as a officer would likely possess an officer's sword, so he may fair the best in this range. Should Shaka use them correctly, Farewell and his men could be a great boon for the Zulus.
Gunpowder has always shocked native cultures when it was introduced, and just by firing these weapons the British traders will landing a pertinent psychological blow. Both the musket and pistol are going to penetrate whatever the holder is aiming at, and neither sheild nor mail will be an effective defense.
Neither he nor his men use sheilds, and have no protection against the avarious projectiles of the Germans. His men are not accustomed to close quarter combat, and will suffer if placed in such a position. His men are irreplacable, and every man dead is another musket lost, as the Zulus are not trained to operate firearms. Support Animal: Cattle! Traditional Zulu cattle. This is not really a weapon per say, although one could certainly get trampled in a stampede. I have no doubt that he will be able to see through the ploy and he will certainly be able to keep his loyal and trained auxiliaries in check, but historically his advice has failed to the greed of his warriors particularly his uncle.
In many ancient societies cattle were prized possessions, giving it owner food for when the lean times come. So valuable were they to Zulus that Shaka often paid those who he conducted business with in cattle, and in many agricultural societies they served as a system of currency, as well as a symbol of status and sacrificial animal. The ancient Germans were like the Zulus in that they were also an agrarian society, and used their cattle in a similar fashion. We are halfway done with the Shaka Zulu series!
This animal of course offers far less options then horses, and cannot be used to directly cause harm to Arminius and his forces. Still the brilliant Shaka could use it to distract his foe and throw them into confusion, as well as feed his troops should the battle exceed a certain amount of time.
Defensive categories:. Head: Leather necklace, Umqele, Amabhege. Many warriors wore a leather necklace to which the cow-tails featured below were attached. The Umquele was a padded roll of leopard or otter skin that was stitched into a tube, stuffed with dried cow dung and neatly tied behind the head.
I assume this provided padding. Hanging down from the sides were ear flaps known as Amabhege which were usually made of monkey and hund all the way down to the collar bone. Stitched to a headband were bundles of feathers that could symbolize various traits like youth, experience, ferocity, seniority etc. These were rather uncomfortable however, and were not often worn into battle. Offers a very low protective score , though its better then nothing. Body: Umnecedo, unutsha , regimental dress , insinba, leopard skins.
Zulus did not wear much in the way of armor, or clothes for that matter. The Umnecedo was a small sheath worn over the penis, that if a Zulu ever neglected to wear he would be considered indecently exposed by his peers. Conversely a Zulu was considered properly dressed if he only wore an Umnecedo in public. On top of this was usually placed a loin covering known as a Unutsha, which was made up of animal hide and skin.
The more senior regiments included to this the insinba, which was a kilt of twisted tails that circled around the waist and hung to the knees. Chiefs and other senior officers were allowed to wear leopard skins, as a well of signifying their status and prowess.
Admittedly, all of this possesses a rather slim defensive value, and will only be able to turn aside a weak sword thrust or glancing blow. Does not inhibit their movement whatsoever. Legs: Leather bands, no sandals. Often warriors wore leather bands on their wrists which were taken to be blessed by a witch doctor, adding a spiritual advantage to their armor. Impis did not wear sandals, allowing for greater mobility. Arms: Leather bands. See the above description for legs. Shield : Islangu.
Finally we come to a defensive category where the Zulus truly excel at. The construction of a shield was a rather complicated affair involving multiple layers, but the end result was a shield that could repel javelins and even deflect a spear thrust. The shield was blessed prior to it being given to a warrior, giving the warrior a sense of spiritual empowerment, , and warriors were trained to use this shield offensively as well as defensively.
The shields were state owned, which was to prevent any rebels during an uprising from possessing this valuable defense. The rare Roman Pilum, which was designed to penetrate shields, may also be a problem, though I must again emphasize its rarity.
The Bull horns formation. Credit to MeibukanMaster for the photo. The loins would act as a reserve. Sometimes he would have these men advance in regiments, to trick the enemy into thinking that they were the main force.
Once the enemy was goaded into attacking the main Zulu force would identify itself, shocking and disheartening the enemy. In the battle of Gtorqli hill he hid a large amount of Zulus behind a ravine, allowing them to have enough numbers to encircle the Ndwande. Part 7 of the Zulu series. Guerilla tactics and surprise attacks were another forte of his, and after his Gtorkli hill he managed to slowly white down the 20, man Ndwande army with guerilla attacks and scorched earth, before surprising the divided army when they were crossing a river.
After winning the battle he tricked his foes once more, by approaching the Ndwande compound singing their national victory song. When the residents let down their guard and went out to celebrate with him, Shaka slaughtered them. Commando raids were also used in the war, such as when Shaka gathered up volunteers, and dressed them similarly to the Ndwande, before sending them into their camp.
Once there the Zulus slaughtered many Ndwande while they were sleeping, causing chaos and spreading fear, and making the Ndwande fear the night. As I have repeatedly said throughout this bio, Shaka is a master of terrain manipulation, and can use various environmental notables like fords, ravines, rivers to his advantage.
Shaka was also a master of terror, and not unlike Vlad he often impaled his enemies and subjects that displeased him. He completely massacred some of the tribes who resisted him. He was SOO terrifying that he almost single-handily caused a period of turmoil in Southern Africa, known as the Mfecane. These fleeing tribes brought along the Zulu system of warfare, causing even more tribes to be displaced as the newcomers proved that the javelin had become outdated.
Morale:Extremely High. The Green in this map would be around the size of Shaka's kingdom. Like many great conquerors, Shaka seeks unification of some kind. His vision was to destroy all Tribal establishments and unite all of them into one kingdom - his kingdom! Before Shaka came there were many tribes that dominated the region now known as Zululand - when he died there was only one, the Zulus.
The dramatic increase off his armies - from in to 50, in - shows just how successful the man was in this regard. Dingane, Shaka's half-brother and assassin. The Zulus were quite famous for their policy of not wearing any sandals, as Shaka felt that it hindered their mobility. Anyone that complained or cried out in pain was executed. He had them jog many miles a day, across the hot scorching Earth to further toughen their feet.
When their training was complete their endurance had been built up to where they could run an amazing 50 miles a day! In contrast British armies at the time could only do 15 — on paved roads. The lack of shoes greatly improved the Zulus speed as well, to the point where in the battle of Gtorqli hill they were able to run down the fast light infantrymen of the Ndwande who were attempting hit and run attacks.
Against Arminius, a man who relies on hit and run tactics, this legendary mobility is going to be major cog in his tactics, as the only part of his army that can outrun the Zulus are his cavalry, which are far from the majority.
Young Shaka telling his father to shove it in the T. His genius allowed him to form one of, if not the greatest, Sub-Saharan African empires, but he did so on the bodies of perhaps a million people. While I must stress that this probably won't come into play in a battle, Shaka probably suffered from a lifelong depression, and was generally unhappy. He was brutally humiliated and bullied throughout his childhood, and until he was 15 he probably didn't have any prolonged periods of happiness.
Though he did come to his senses later and rescinded the order, his country reaped what he sowed later on. Conversely, his own forces are going to take some loses, even with their giant Ishlangus. Around the age of six young Zulu boys were expected to become herdsmen, and had to protect the valuable cattle from predators, natural hazards, and protect the crops from cattle. It was in this profession that young Zulu boys learned many skills that would help them prepare for military life; a respect for authority, especially those older then himself head herdsmen , to be responsible, to be self-reliant and function in a group, and familiarity with the outdoors.
From an early age Zulu boys carried sticks, and they were taught both to fight with them mostly against other boys and to hunt with them often with throwing sticks that were similar to the adult Knobkerrie. A popular game of the Zulu youth was to throw sharpened into a passing melon, teaching them accuracy. Real stick fighting came when they were a bit older. In a two-day running battle, the Zulu inflicted a resounding defeat on their opponents.
Zwide himself escaped with a handful of followers before falling foul of a chieftainess named Mjanji, ruler of a baBelu clan. Zwide's general Soshangane of the Shangaan moved north towards what is now Mozambique to inflict further damage on less resistant foes and take advantage of slaving opportunities, obliging Portuguese traders to give tribute.
Shaka later had to contend again with Zwide's son Sikhunyane in Shaka granted permission to Europeans to enter Zulu territory on rare occasions.
In the mids Henry Francis Fynn provided medical treatment to the king after an assassination attempt by a rival tribe member hidden in a crowd see account of Nathaniel Isaacs. This would open the door for future British incursions into the Zulu kingdom that were not so peaceful. Shaka observed several demonstrations of European technology and knowledge, but he held that the Zulu way was superior to that of the foreigners.
Dingane and Mhlangana , Shaka's half-brothers, appear to have made at least two attempts to assassinate Shaka before they succeeded, with perhaps support from Mpondo elements and some disaffected iziYendane people. While the British colonialists considered his regime to be a future threat, allegations that European traders wished him dead were problematic given that Shaka had granted concessions to Europeans prior to his death, including the right to settle at Port Natal now Durban.
Shaka had made enough enemies among his own people to hasten his demise. It came relatively quickly after the death of his mother Nandi in October , and the devastation caused by Shaka's subsequent erratic behavior.
According to Donald Morris, Shaka ordered that no crops should be planted during the following year of mourning, no milk the basis of the Zulu diet at the time was to be used, and any woman who became pregnant was to be killed along with her husband. At least 7, people who were deemed to be insufficiently grief-stricken were executed, although the killing was not restricted to humans: cows were slaughtered so that their calves would know what losing a mother felt like.
The Zulu monarch was killed by three assassins sometime in ; September is the most frequently cited date, when almost all available Zulu manpower had been sent on yet another mass sweep to the north. This left the royal kraal critically lacking in security. It was all the conspirators needed—they being Shaka's half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana, and an iNduna called Mbopa. A diversion was created by Mbopa, and Dingane and Mhlangana struck the fatal blows.
Shaka's corpse was dumped by his assassins in an empty grain pit, which was then filled with stones and mud. The exact location is unknown. A monument was built at one alleged site. Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position. The initial problem Dingane faced was maintaining the loyalty of the Zulu fighting regiments, or amabutho.
He addressed this by allowing them to marry and set up homesteads which was forbidden during Shaka's rule and they also received cattle from Dingane. Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed. He set up his main residence at Mmungungundlovo and established his authority over the Zulu kingdom. Some older histories have doubted the military and social innovations customarily attributed to Shaka, denying them outright, or attributing them variously to European influences.
Shaka is often said to have been dissatisfied with the long throwing assegai , and is credited with introducing a new variant of the weapon: the iklwa , a short stabbing spear with a long, broad, and indeed sword-like, spearhead. Though Shaka probably did not invent the iklwa , according to Zulu scholar John Laband, the leader did insist that his warriors train with the weapon, which gave them a "terrifying advantage over opponents who clung to the traditional practice of throwing their spears and avoiding hand-to-hand conflict.
It is also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Nguni shield. Furthermore, it is believed that he taught his warriors how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing the enemy's ribs for a fatal spear stab.
In Shaka's time, these cowhide shields were supplied by the king, and they remained the king's property. Some had black shields, others used white shields with black spots, and some had white shields with brown spots, while others used pure brown or white shields. The story that sandals were discarded to toughen the feet of Zulu warriors has been noted in various military accounts such as The Washing of the Spears, Like Lions They Fought, and Anatomy of the Zulu Army.
Implementation was typically blunt. Those who objected to going without sandals were simply killed. Historian John Laband dismisses these stories as myth, writing: "What are we to make, then, of [European trader Henry Francis] Fynn's statement that once the Zulu army reached hard and stony ground in , Shaka ordered sandals of ox-hide to be made for himself?
They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy. Boys and girls aged six and over joined Shaka's force as apprentice warriors udibi and served as carriers of rations , supplies like cooking pots and sleeping mats, and extra weapons until they joined the main ranks.
It is sometimes held that such support was used more for very light forces designed to extract tribute in cattle and slaves from neighbouring groups. Nevertheless, the concept of "light" forces is questionable. The fast-moving Zulu raiding party, or "ibutho lempi," on a mission invariably travelled light, driving cattle as provisions on the hoof, and were not weighed down with heavy weapons and supply packs.
Age-grade groupings of various sorts were common in the Bantu culture of the day, and indeed are still important in much of Africa. Age grades were responsible for a variety of activities, from guarding the camp, to cattle herding, to certain rituals and ceremonies.
Shaka organised various grades into regiments , and quartered them in special military kraals, with regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia.
The regimental system clearly built on existing tribal cultural elements that could be adapted and shaped to fit an expansionist agenda. Most historians [ who? The expanding Zulu power inevitably clashed with European hegemony in the decades after Shaka's death.
In fact, European travellers to Shaka's kingdom demonstrated advanced technology such as firearms and writing, but the Zulu monarch was less than convinced. There was no need to record messages, he held, since his messengers stood under penalty of death should they bear inaccurate tidings. As for firearms, Shaka acknowledged their utility as missile weapons after seeing muzzle-loaders demonstrated, but he argued that in the time a gunman took to reload, he would be swamped by charging spear-wielding warriors.
The first major clash after Shaka's death took place under his successor Dingane, against expanding European Voortrekkers from the Cape. Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River.
The second major clash was against the British during Once again, most Zulu successes rested on their mobility, ability to screen their forces and to close when their opponents were unfavourably deployed. Their major victory at the Battle of Isandlwana is well known, but they also forced back a British column at the Battle of Hlobane mountain, by deploying fast-moving regiments over a wide area of rugged ravines and gullies, and attacking the British who were forced into a rapid disorderly fighting retreat, back to the town of Kambula.
A number of historians [ who? A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa — the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation.
This combination has been compared to the standardisation implemented by the reorganised Roman legions under Marius. Much controversy still surrounds the character, methods and activities of the Zulu king. From a military standpoint, historian John Keegan notes exaggerations and myths that surround Shaka, but nevertheless maintains:.
Fanciful commentators called him Shaka, the Black Napoleon, and allowing for different societies and customs, the comparison is apt. Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to come out of Africa. Some scholars [ who? They also argue that Shaka's line was relatively short-lived and receives undue attention, compared to other, longer established lines and rulers in the region.
It seems much more likely that Shaka, seeking to build the power of a previously insignificant chiefdom, drew on an existing heritage of statecraft known to his immediate neighbors. Soga implied as much when he used genealogical evidence to argue that the Zulu were an upstart group inferior in dignity and distinction to established chiefdoms in their region, for example, the Hlubi, Ndwandwe, and Dlamini lines. Bryant arrived at similar conclusions. The Zulu line — "a royal house of doubtful pedigree" — was very short in comparison to the Langene, Ndwandwe, Swazi, and Hlubi lines.
Using his standard formula of eighteen years per reign, Bryant calculated that the Swazi, Ndwandwe, and Hlubi lines could be traced back to the beginning of the fifteenth century, while the eponymous chief Zulu had died at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Shaka's triumphs did not succeed in obliterating or diminishing the memories of his better-born rivals. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents — especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide d.
The founders of the states which Omer-Cooper called "Zulu-type states," including the Ndebele, the Gasa, the Ngoni, and the Swazi had all been closely associated with Zwide. Instead of hypothesizing that they all chose to imitate Shaka, it is easier to imagine that he modeled his state on theirs.
And as they stemmed from ancient families it is entirely possible that states of that type existed in a more remote past. Soga and Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called Mho. Scholarship in recent years has revised views of the sources on Shaka's reign. The earliest are two eyewitness accounts written by European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the last four years of his reign.
Nathaniel Isaacs published his Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa in , creating a picture of Shaka as a degenerate and pathological monster, which survives in modified forms to this day. Isaacs was aided in this by Henry Francis Fynn , whose diary actually a rewritten collage of various papers was edited by James Stuart only in Their accounts may be balanced by the rich resource of oral histories collected around by the same James Stuart, now published in six volumes as The James Stuart Archive.
Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. Malcolm in These and other sources such as A. Bryant gives us a more Zulu-centred picture. Most popular accounts are based on E. Ritter's novel Shaka Zulu , a potboiling romance that was re-edited into something more closely resembling a history. Various modern historians writing on Shaka and the Zulu point to the uncertain nature of Fynn and Isaac's accounts of Shaka's reign.
A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best. Morris nevertheless references a large number of sources, including Stuart, and A. Bryant's extensive but uneven "Olden Times in Zululand and Natal", which is based on four decades of exhaustive interviews of tribal sources. After sifting through these sources and noting their strengths and weaknesses, Morris generally credits Shaka with a large number of military and social innovations, and this is the general consensus in the field.
A study by historian Carolyn Hamilton summarizes much of the scholarship on Shaka towards the dawn of the 21st century in areas ranging from ideology, politics and culture, to the use of his name and image in a popular South African theme park, Shakaland. It argues that in many ways, the image of Shaka has been "invented" in the modern era according to whatever agenda persons hold.
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