The story of humanity continues. Sabbath looks upon the souls of the just in the garden, causing them to rejoice, and even the sinners in Sheol love her, repentant over the evil they did on the Sabbath and hopeful that they may be brought up out of the place of torture i6, , After some general statements about those who do the right thing on the Sabbath 16, , 8 and fur- ther admonitions and assurances to them 17, , the theme of deliverance from Sheol is continued.
God commands Michael to go down to Sheol to bring out those in the nether world and give them a reprieve from the ninth hour of Friday until Sunday morning.
But the hardened sinners apparently have to stay m Sheol, though they appeal to Michael for deliverance. Michael, following divine instructions, brings the souls of the just into the garden on the ninth hour of Friday, Here they are graciously re- ceived. There is some further discussion of the kind of men who enter Paradise and who enjoy divine favor on the Day of Judgment, as well as of those who came out of Sheol or were brought up by Michael.
Their punishment is considered preferable to Sheol. After a restatement of the Sabbath rules there is a whole senes of laws involving the death penalty 19, , 8; 20, , interrupted however by a section de- scribing the blessedness of the Sabbath day 20, Then the personified Sabbath states that she was present at creation and asks not to be sent to the unjust 21, A declaration of God to Moses, again containing a list of transgressions with the death penalty, is given, and in conclusion there are some general ob- servations contrasting the just and the unjust 21, , 6.
He IS sent to explore Gehenna. Then follows a predictive piece. On the day when God repri- mands the children of Adam, Sabbath will stand at the entrance of Hell and appeal for special consideration for those who kept the Sabbath whatever else they may have done ; she will be given a favorable answer 23, , 12 , Some mixed material, largely in praise of keeping the Sabbath, terminates this section This IS developed in detail.
Noah receives passing men- tion 26, 8. Terah sends him to Nimrod, king of Canaan, who attempts to make him worship idols and when unsuccessful throws Abra- ham into the flames of an oven.
God, however, sends Gabriel down to deliver the patriarch. The story of the sacrifice of Isaac is related next. We learn in connection with it that the horn of the ram that was substituted for Isaac will be blown by Elijah on Mount Zion and its blast will be heard to the ends of the earth on the Last Day 26, , The biblical story of the golden calf is told, and especially how the calf was ground to powder and the Israelites made to drink it Exod.
The personified Sabbath reappears 30, , Attended by angels she worships the Creator on Friday morning. God con- verses with her and tells her that those who honor her honor Him. Sabbath praises the Lord and then leaves the camp of God attended by angels. They bring her to earth and report the deeds of men on the Sabbath day to God, who then rewards or punishes. God bids all people praise Him. Sabbath appeals to God to give her those who love her.
God agrees. In the material that follows the personi- fied Sabbath is not mentioned again. There is an account of the days of creation and of how God celebrated the Sabbath in Heaven on the seventh day and ordered the two kinds of angels to keep It, predicting, too, that he would take for his own a people from among all peoples that would keep the Sabbath 32, , 7.
A transition to the history of Adam to Moses is then made 34, , but that history is not elaborated on. An apocalyptic passage is introduced referring to the Ethiopian king, Gabra Masqal, and his successors and the eclipse of that line 34, Rather abruptly a commandment about bringing offerings on the fifth? Then follows narrative material. The angels, seeing that the Sabbath? However, God rejected that request.
He had not given the Sabbath even to his servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob! After the angels have praised God m all three Heavens he gives them their food, the manna. They eat and continue their praise of the Creator, standing at their places, while the doors of the house of God are open on New Moon and Sabbath 34, , 4.
The earthly scene is then envisaged in more detail. The angels are called upon to praise the man who observed the Sabbath 36, There are explanations of the benefits gamed by honor- ing her, and admonitions and promises from God who announces the glory of His name. A saying of God to Moses on the third Sabbath of the fifth month is reported 36, , An apocalyptic piece is then introduced.
When God questions men at the final assize Sabbath intercedes for those who were loyal to her. Man and woman were created in the first week, but woman was not shown to man until the second. They came into Eden on the fortieth and eightieth days respectively.
Sources I. The sources are mostly Jewish, both biblical and extra- biblical. What characterizes our book is its originality and the picturesque description of how the Sabbath, crowned on that day by the angels, goes down to Sheol and delivers the sinners from their punishment.
A Jewish source other than biblical and rabbinical for this material is the Book of Jubilees. In fact, various passages such as those dealing with the creation of the world, the ordinances con- cerning the defilement of the woman, the commandments of the Sabbath, and others are taken from the Book of the Jubilees.
Several passages, especially those concerning the angels, are drawn from the Ethiopic Enoch. Some legends amplifying various accounts of the Bible, such as the creation of Adam, the story of Abraham and his relation to Nimrod, and others, are of Arabic rather than Jewish origin. They may have been taken over either orally or from transla- tions, but in any case are found here in a very corrupt form For example, in the story of the creation of Adam angels are sent to take dust from the earth.
The names of the angels are not the same as in the Arabic sources, but the whole account corre- sponds exactly to what we know from Arabic texts. This account is Arabic and is related in our text in a very abridged and corrupt form.
The presence of influence from Christian-Arabic quarters suggests that it is not older than the fourteenth century. It is quite possible, of course, that the work contains materials which reach much further back. The extreme limit for any part of it would be the period of biblical translation from the fifth through the seventh centuries. It will be one of the tasks of future research to determine whether Jewish agadic materials or Christian sources furnish any clues that would make possible a more precise dating.
The second part of the text had to be translated from the Ethiopic text pubhshed by Halevy, which unfortunately is corrupt in several passages. Only important corrections were suggested in the foot- notes. The numerous grammatical mistakes are not cited. Joseph Halevy, Te'ezdza Sanbat, French synopsis, pp. Aescoli, HafalaHm, Hebrew synopsis, pp. For the various manuscripts, see nn. And It was night, and it was day. And it was six days, and He finished His work.
The first day He created the light. The sec- ond day He created Heaven and water showing His wisdom. The fourth day He created the sun, the moon, and the constellations of stars. The country of Dudalem was cleft asunder and took refuge m the name of the mighty Lord. And the angel, who feared the name of God, became strong.
The soul of the one who belonged to the army of God trembled. Likewise they who honor me will not enter into Hell. God said. When he arrived the earth trembled, was fearful and agitated. It knew while the angel stood there [that he would take the dust], whereas pre- viously the two angels did not rise up and take it. It shouted aloud from its interior to its foundations and took refuge in the mighty name of God. God looked upon the earth and contem- plated while It trembled.
It will tremble thus beginning from today until the end of the years. Let the souls of those who disobeyed Thy commandments become like mine, and may they be punished with me. The third day He created Hell with all its hosts. In fact, God created Hell because man was bad from his youth until his end.
Then God breathed into man the breath of life, and he became alive and stood before God, the Lord. God said to Adam. And they ate, and the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked. And they heard God coming, and Adam and his wife hid them- selves among [the trees of] the garden. Thou, Lord, the excellent, the just, and the living; with their mouth they exalt and praise the divinity of Thy name that is and will be.
Lord of the world who gave me my food, the rain. I praise and glorify God to whom it is fitting to give praise and thanks. The sons numbered nine and the daughters ninety. Adam died in justice and Seth succeeded him. Seth died, and Enosh succeeded him and then died.
Kenan succeeded him and then died. Mahalalel succeeded him and died. Jared succeeded him and died. And Enoch will be there until the Savior comes. God sanctified the Sabbath, glorified It, and blessed it through the Holy Spirit. The Lord exalted and glorified it as He did all of His creation the heavens and the earth.
He finished His work m six days and rested on the seventh day and established it as the Sabbath. Serve God on the Sabbath. They will measure out to you thirteen times more with the measure you used.
The Sabbath will rise from her seat on Friday at dawn; the spirit of God will descend through the seven heavens and will then rise. Then the archangels will crown the Sabbath of God, and the priests of Heaven will leap for joy. The spirit of God will come on Friday at the ninth hour. Ninety thousand angels will crown the Sabbath of God and will bring her down from on high.
Because of her all will rejoice like calves, and all the angels of Heaven will be glad because of the greatness, the splen- dor, and the glory of the Sabbath of God. He who observes His laws, commandments, and the statutes of the judgment that God has given them upon the earth [will inherit eternal] life.
The souls of the sinners will love her m order that she may bring them out of Sheol. Thou shalt not argue or dispute on my Sabbath. Pray to God, your Lord, you who have sins and faults, and you will be saved through the Sabbath. He who honors the Sabbath and the festivals, God will honor him in Heaven. While they praise, glorify, and honor her, they fear and tremble greatly. They descend from the heavens on Friday at the ninth hour of the evening.
Ninety thousand archangels and thousands and myriads of their hosts are with him. They descend into Sheol to bring out those who are in it, beginning on Friday at the ninth hour. The angels give rest to the souls of men until Sunday morning. He gathered the souls of the just and brought them before God. And as for those of the just who had committed no sms when their souls left the body, God gathers them each according to His justice; He appears to them in His glory while their faces shine seven times brighter than the sun.
Come, you who are in no respect willful or perverse. He will be faithful to those who love Him. As He said in the Book of the Law : All those who keep my Sabbath and profane it not are my chosen sacrifice and offerings. The souls of the sinners that Michael brought out of Sheol on Friday reach the hmits of Heaven and earth, and it seems to them that they will never more return. Michael brings them out of the fiery furnace that is never quenched, and they run from east to west, to the south and to the north.
This punishment is preferable to Sheol, and it is better to keep the Sabbath and the day of the New Moon than to go down into Sheol. Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah! He IS holy, praised, and glorified forever. In it you shall do no work, neither you, nor your women, nor your sons, nor your daughters, nor your menservants, nor your maidservants, nor your catde, nor your family, nor the strangers that are with you.
He who draws water from a streaming spring or who argues or curses or blasphemes on that day shall die. He who prepares not on Friday what he will eat, drink, or give [on the Sabbath], who lies. He who carries anything, who takes something from his tent or brings something into it, shall die.
Sabbath is the day on which to eat, to drink, to be satiated, to be fflled with drink, to rest. For great is the deed of God who gave to Israel that day on which to eat, to drink, to be satiated, and to be filled with drink This day is a festival, to rest from all human labor save the bringing of sacrifices, incense, offerings, and gifts before God on the Sabbaths, the festivals, and the day of the New Moon. You shall do this on the Sabbath in the sanctuary of God, your Lord, in order that He may forgive Israel.
The offerings shall be brought at your festivals, as He commanded you, one day after another, as a memorial offered before God, who will accept them. He who shows hatred or curses or swears or strives shall die. He who rides on any beast or travels on a boat, he who strikes or kills or fornicates, shall die.
He who slaughters a beast or kills a bird or catches animals on my Sabbath shall die. I was with Thee when Thou didst create the Heaven and didst establish the earth upon the rocks with Thy wisdom.
Every creature in Heaven, in the sea, on the dry land, and in the rivers was created by Thy wisdom. He who lies with his sister shall die. He who divines or asks divina- tion by charms shall die. He who profanes the Sabbath shall die. He who worships a human being shall die. He who speaks evil against God shall die. He who gives his children into the service of princes that may kill them shall die. He who listens [not] to the words of the covenant shall die.
He who steals, lies, or bears false witness against his neighbor shall die. By deeds of justice, alms. By boasting, injustice, and bad deeds man shall perish. He who loves this world, in eight days. He who loves the last day, [despising] the ephemeral world, will inherit life that has neither limit nor count.
Justice will be profitable for the soul of the just, the deeds of the sinner will work against his soul. Because of the number [of the sinners] whom He brings into Hell, God has created an angel, a great eagle named Tani. Hell with Its hosts and precipices is terrible. I shall follow him. The souls of the sinners arrive at the place where they. He was emaciated and became like the breath of the lean-fleshed turtledove.
He came being small in appearance , his wings hung down, his bones showed their bare points. I ar- rived at the place where the souls of the smners are suspended on entering Hell.
Vultures of fire and tigers of fire cast down the sinners from the borders of Hell into the pit of Hell hke stones, and they rose not. Fiery tigers seized the hosts of sinners as crocodiles seize men in the midst of the waters. They die not, for they have souls m their bodies and hearts with which they devise good and evil.
They tell their deeds, and they see all the sins they have committed before Him. None of the sins are hidden. As for eternal life, it has no end, no measure, and no limit for those who observe the commandments of life so that they may live.
Those who observed not the commandments shall die in Sheol, and there is no limit to it. May the just not be separated from the sinners before I separate them for my sake. I conjure Thee by Thy glory. I, Thy Sabbath, rose on that day to deliver my menservants and maidservants from among the living [? Not even the sun and the moon are clean before Thee! And now may they have respite from Hell on that day, since the Sabbath is the witness for those who observe it.
They will enjoy a rest without limit and the happiness of the just. They will not see strife, nor will the noise of strife be heard.
They who, because of the Sabbath, gave to eat, will eat. Justice is good. Alms are good. The Sabbath is good Silence on Sabbath is good. Nothing is like the Sab- bath.
Mercy and alms are greater than all. Humility before God and patience are good. Kindness is good. True judgment is good. Worshiping [is good]. Nothing can vie with the Sabbath and the observance of the commandments. There is no other commandment like it that can deliver the soul of man from the punishment of Hell. The Sabbath is good. Above all, God loves those who observe the Sabbath.
Above all, God hates those who observe not the Sabbath. The Sabbath is better than all the commandments. The man who is against me, O God, is he who observes not the commandments of the Sabbath and its precepts and who believes not. This IS the commandment of the Sabbath. They who observe It shall live. They who do not observe it shall be punished forever. Praise be to God in the council of His glory.
He alone is holy and just and there is none like Him. All the earth is filled with Thy glory, O Lord! And the stars of Heaven praise Him with intelligence. He is living. All the earth is filled with Thy glory, and there is none like Thee in the heavens above and on the earth below. When God fashioned and made Adam, He took clay from the land of Dudalem.
God put [Adam] in the Garden of Pleasure to keep it and to eat of Its fruits and to live in it forever without laboring or watering It or working. But Adam lost the way of life and transgressed the commandments of his Creator. God sent him forth from the Garden of Pleasure and delight to till the earth and keep it, to eat the herb of the field by the sweat of his brow, the labor of his body, and the pain of his soul, for he transgressed the command- ments of his Creator.
And Adam and his seed lived in labor and m the pain of their bodies. Their affliction became greater. Noah found grace in the sight of God, for he was just in his deeds and in his belief. God gave him the sign of peace and established an everlasting covenant with him that He will no more destroy the earth because of the deeds of mankind. From among his seed Thou hast es- tablished a covenant with Isaac who purified his body from the spot of sin; and with Jacob, His beloved.
As God brought forth Noah [from the ark] with His advice and wisdom at the time of the flood, so He brought forth Abraham from the country of the Chaldeans. Abraham saw the moon and the stars and said. His heart was boiling, and he went out the third day at noon. He took an ax and clove the carved idols and broke them to pieces and laid the ax on the neck of one of them.
Behold, the ax is on his neck. Come, let us worship this idol. It is He who has created the sun, the moon, the heavens, and the earth. He who appoints thee king is in Heaven. When he reached the clouds an eagle saw the meat above his head. Nim- rod pierced the eagle above his head [with an arrow].
It is He who causes to die. He threw him into the flames. From that day until today it is called Kaladewon. The children of Israel, from among the Chaldeans, drank that flame which became water and dried not up, nor ceased from then until now. Abraham took his son and bound him hand and foot to slay him.
Elijah will blow it on the Mount of Zion, and its blast will be heard unto the ends of the earth from the setting of the sun to its rising, and the sound of the horn will be heard on the Last Day. Hell, and destruction and hast driven us away from life.
Thou hast guided us to Hell, stumbling, and to precipices, for thou hast transgressed the commandments, precepts, and laws that God gave thee m order that thou shouldst not transgress. Thou hast disobeyed His orders not to eat and not to drink certain things and thus hast brought about Hell, the fire of which shall not be quenched and whose worm shall not sleep. Because of one sin, Adam went out of the garden of joy, but the just Moses put us back into the garden of delight, the Garden of Edom.
Abandon all others and save your souls because God, your Lord, is merciful, long-suffering, abundant in grace and just. He forgives sins and faults. They shall be separated in their lives.
The people were glad, they ate, enjoyed themselves, and did foolish things. Those who gave not [then destroyed? They encamped there and still abide there until today and are alienated from God, the Lord. And those who died were saints, and they shall be men of renown on the last day.
They went not awhormg away from God, the Lord. Ever since that day people became accustomed to do evil, to worship foreign gods, to offend me, and to abandon my law and my covenant.
But God loves him who repents: the generous, the gentle, the humble, and the just. God conversed with the Sabbath. He gave the Sabbath fto Israel] to eat the fruits of the earth, to drink, to rest, to worship, to pray, and to show mercy. They who praise not, are not submissive, invoke not God on my Sabbath, and transgress my laws and commandments shall be coupled with the wicked.
I, God, wrote with my hands and my holy fingers the two tables of stone on Mount Sinai. The just praise Thy name. Thou art the God of the just. Thy loving kindness, grandeur, and mercies are with Thee. He who celebrates thee and honors thee more than the other days, will not have his sins remembered. To him who gives alms on the Sabbath of God, I shall give the forty-nine gifts I gave to thee. They brought her to earth. They reported the deeds of men to God on the day which was known to men as the Sabbath and they brought them before God.
God let the angels know their parts. Praise me, all people. The debts of one to the other shall not be repaid in that year and it shall not be considered as sin. The Sabbath of God is made for offerings of a sweet savor and alms should not be forgotten. Come not empty to God on the Sabbath and on the day of the New Moon; bring the tithe at the three festivals of the year?
They drove them to the bottom of Sheol and slapped them on the cheeks. And for those who fear God, the Sabbath will stand before Him and defend the children of Adam on the last day. She went not from the mouth of God when the spirit of God moved upon the face of waters She was not visible and was not yet ready Then God divided the light from the darkness, and He called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And God made the [two] great lights, the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night, together with the stars.
God created this on the fourth day. On the fifth day He created the great sea monsters in the depths of the waters; these were the first creatures of flesh that were created by His hands.
He also created every living creature that moves in the waters and in the wells and every winged fowl after its kind. And the sun rose above them to make everything that was upon the earth prosper; everything that shoots out of the earth and all the fruit-bearing trees and all flesh.
These three kinds He created on the fifth day. And after that He created man- kind; man and woman created He and gave them dominion over all that IS upon the earth and over everything that multiplies and over the beasts and over everything that moves on the earth and over the whole earth. He gave them dominion over all this that He created on the sixth day. As I have sanctified the Sabbath day, even so shall I sanctify them and bless them, and they will be my people and I shall be their God.
This one is blessed and holy, and this one too is blessed and holy. And this one serves with that one for sanctification and blessing. The Sabbath was granted to him to be always a blessed and a holy day, a testimony, and the first law. He was sanctified and blessed on the Sabbath. After nine hundred and twelve weeks the king Gabra Masqal will govern; four cycles will be added at his time. Others will reign after him; some of them will be good and perfect, and will walk in justice; others will be bad, forward, unjust, oppressors, extortioners; they will not do justice and will steal the belongings of others, they will oppress them without cause, and they will insult the widow and orphan.
Therefore God, the Lord of all, will hide Himself from them. On the fifth day you shall bring offerings to God. The angels saw that the Sabbath was not sanctified on that day, and they stood before God.
Each of them went to his encampment and stayed in his tent. They bowed down and prostrated themselves because of the Sabbath, but God was not willing to show them compassion. The angels of God deliberated again, they slept not, slumbered not, nor ceased to reflect. Thou art the eternal King, our Creator, our Father and our Lord.
We implore [Thee], listen to us, and look at us m Thy grace and mercy. Deliver us by the splendor of Thy praise. May God be blessed on the day the great Satan will be opposed to us. He is our Father, the King of all. He reigns over His creatures. Then God gave the angels their food. The angels ate their manna, measured and put it in with and its dimension was three. Then the angels of God rejoiced, all with one voice, and all of them were gladdened by His praise.
For they are not closed on the New Moon nor on the Sab- bath. The seventh pure Sabbath is the Festival of the Harvest. I am God, your Lord. After having heard these words And now, O angels of Heaven, praise the man who observed my Sabbath.
I shall reward him from my table. Abel, Enoch, and Melchizedek, the great priest, received her. And all the angels of God crowned her, and then they dispersed in the midst of Heaven after having departed from her throne. Those who celebrate the Sabbath and honor her and observe her will have their sins remitted. Those who pray with a right heart, and ask for grace on the Sabbath, shall have their sms remitted, as will those who are silent and give alms and pray at the Feasts of the Tabernacles and of the Harvest.
Thou shalt give tithe of all Thy corn, and thou shalt bring the tithe of the products of thy field to the priest, before God, and he will pardon the sms of men. After making you sick and hungry I shall make you great, and you shall participate in my glory if you observe my commandments. If you observe not the commandments of God and follow the ancient temptation not to live in justice, I, God, your Lord, shall expel you as I expelled you from your country. And I shall send hunger, plague, sterility, and scab so that you will eat the flesh of your sons and daughters.
If there are people who know me not I shall punish them by my hands, and my sword will burn above those who know me not. This is my name forever and my fame for generations. God said to Moses: '1 gave thee the Sabbath for rest and for the invocation of my name. At the third Sabbath and the fifth New Moon I am and I shall be. My name is forever. He who will pray, be submissive, praise, prostrate himself, purify his soul, and pray with a constant heart will be deprived of nothing.
They who observe the laws and the Sabbath of God and celebrate the Sabbath of God shall live. These are the commandments of the Sabbath for those who observe it. When God questions the inhabitants of the earth upon the day of His arrival, the Sabbath will stand before God on behalf of those who fear Him. As for those of the children of Adam who fear not God, a misfortune [.? Thy name is gracious.
Now they will enjoy eternal rest. Be submissive to the law of God before your soul leaves you, and remember two calamities: first a bitter death, second a punishment without end.
Remember this forever and forget it not. Therefore the commandment was to regard their defilement as lasting for a male seven days and for a female twice seven days. And Sarah laughed, for she had heard that we had spoken these words to Abraham. We admonished her and she became afraid, and denied that she had laughed at these words.
And we told her the name of her son, as his name Isaac was ordained and written in the heavenly tables, and that when we returned to her at the time appointed she would have borne a son. And in this month God executed His judgment on Sodom and Gomorrah and Zeboim and the regions of the Jordan, and he burned them with fire.
And in the middle of the month at the time of which God had spoken, on the festival of the first fruits of the harvest, Isaac was born. After an introductory blessing 42, the preacher calls on his brothers to consider the marvelous works of creation as related in Genesis and terminating in the creation of the Sab- bath. He lists the names that God gave the Sabbath and speaks of the benefits granted to those who believe in it and pray in its name 42, , 7.
Horton was not willing to follow Tylor's view that holding theories that were mistaken is evidence of the childishness of traditional thought, pointing out that historians of science have shown that many rationally demonstrated scientific views were subsequently shown to be mistaken and were replaced.
He attributes an intellectualist view to religion and rejects the symbolic, Durkeheimian , understanding of religion, as patronising to the so-called "primitives" who have a literal approach to their beliefs. However, one of his critics who held to the symbolistic approach, anthropologist John H. When he lived in New Calabar among the Kalabari people , Horton studied the processes that lead to social change. Beginning in s, Horton published his theories of religion in several journal articles and books.
His scientific approach to the understanding of " primitive " religion was groundbreaking in an era during which the prevailing view was a Western elitist conceptualisation of "primitive" religion as a construct of less intelligent "savages" and "barbarians" terms now considered to be anachronistic and pejorative.
Horton conducted his fieldwork in Nike in northern Igboland, Nigeria and among the Kalabari people of the eastern Niger Delta. In , under the commission of the Federal Republic of Nigeria's Department of Antiquities, Horton produced a compilation of 72 Kalabari Ijo Art photographs accompanied by a booklet explaining the meaning and utility of these artistic objects within the Kalabari culture. Horton worked as a senior research fellow and a lecturer in social anthropology at the Institute of African Studies for the University of Ibadan before moving to the University of Port Harcourt as a professor of philosophy and comparative religion.
At the University of Ibadan he collaborated with Ruth Finnegan who, at that time —69 was also lecturing at the university in socio-anthropology.
This collaboration led to the co-edited volume Modes of Thought , which addressed the question of whether there were fundamental differences, either in content, logic, or formulation, between modern or Western thought on the one hand, and traditional or non-Western thought on the other.
Published in , his Patterns of Thought in the Africa and the West: Magic, Religion and Science is a compilation of some of his classic essays published between and His work continues to influence new scholars in the field of anthropology of religion.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Robin Horton. Members Forums Calendar. Welcome to OzReggae. Once registered and logged in, you will be able to create topics, post replies to existing threads, give reputation to your fellow members, get your own private messenger, post status updates, manage your profile and so much more.
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