The Beach Boys. Opera houses, churches, and aristocratic courts all demanded music. In the teaching area he participated as an instructor in the first meeting of marching percussion in Puebla during November ofgave the conference "percussion instruments and Various Percussion Showcase of brain activity" for TELMEX foundation and participated in two educational projects, working as a teacher of percussion and corporal expression at "With the same heart, non-profit organization" for people with intellectual and Various Percussion Showcase disabilities. With the arrival of the Renaissance, musicians began composing music and expressing their emotions in words. It was composed for a thirteen member chamber orchestra.
Castration of male singers before puberty resulted in a higher vocal range as compared to that of male singers who weren't castrated. They had strong lungs, unique voice textures, and the flexibility of women vocalists. Castrati were the highest paid musicians during the Baroque period. Claudio Monteverdi. Monteverdi wrote a number of motets, madrigals, masses, and operas many of which are lost now. Most of his creations were for vocal rendition, supported by basso continuo and other instruments.
His use of melody, bass lines, and harmonic support characterized his style. His first opera, Orfeo or Orpheus, is regarded as a cornerstone in the history of opera. It established opera as a serious form of musical and dramatic creation. These productions had a strong influence on operatic music. In , he became the choirmaster and conductor at Saint Mark's Cathedral in Venice.
Monteverdi breathed his last on November 29, Henry Purcell. Considered as one of the greatest British composers of all time, his work marked a new era in English music. Purcell worked on all forms of music, such as church, concert room, and chamber music as well as the theater during the English Restoration period. His works were expressive and dramatic and had flexible word settings combined with powerful English counterpoints.
Much of his music used multiple textures and dissonances along with a signature ground bass. Dido and Aeneas is his only true opera, but many of his other compositions are considered semi-operas. He died young, at the age of 37 in November Arcangelo Corelli. Born in , Arcangelo Corelli is one of the stalwarts of the Baroque period. He was a respected musician a violinist par excellence , a composer, and an excellent teacher who had a marked influence on later generations.
Many consider him the first great violinist of the world and the founder of modern violin technique. He wrote approximately sixty sonatas and twelve concertos, and he popularized the concerto grosso.
Most of these compositions were for string instruments. La Folia and the Suite for Strings are some of his most popular works. Some of his students include Geminiani and Antonio Vivaldi. The works of later Baroque composers also displayed the influence of his style and form of music. He died in January Antonio Vivaldi. Born in , Antonio Vivaldi is one of the most acclaimed composers of the Baroque period.
He was a violin player, teacher, composer, and conductor. Vivaldi's music was innovative and used rhythmic and formal concerto structures. The exuberant and flamboyant compositions used harmonic contrasts and experimented with themes and melodies.
He composed around concertos and about 46 operas. His music greatly influenced Johann Sebastian Bach and other composers. He died in after a highly creative and successful life. Johann Sebastian Bach. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in He was a composer and musician during the Baroque period, but is widely considered as one of the greatest composers of all times.
He used various types of rhythms, textures, and forms as well as their adaptations to produce some of his finest works. He also used harmony, melody, counterpoint, and other musical organizations to produce extremely artistic music. His compositions are technically robust and have artistic beauty and intellectual depth. He composed almost every form of Baroque music except the opera.
His works include more than three hundred cantatas and other religious music, though his most notable form of music was the fugue. He also wrote four suites for orchestras. The second movement Air of his Suite No. He died on July 28, George Friedrich Handel. Handel was a German composer who became a naturalized British citizen in Considered a master of operas, he composed more than fifty operas in his lifetime.
He stopped composing operas for unknown reasons and began creating oratorios and other forms of sacred music. Handel also created instrumental pieces, such as Concerti Grossi, Op. His most celebrated work is his oratorio Messiah.
Handel's compositions were vivid, full of vigor, and had the grandeur of the Baroque period. They were loved for their perfect blend of English and Italian musical qualities like charm and clarity. His music influenced numerous composers and laid the foundation for later composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, and others. He died in The Classical Period. Known as the Age of Enlightenment, this period witnessed a revival of old forms of music and the emergence of new ones.
The sonata was one of the most popular forms of music. In theme and variations, the theme repeats several times with variations in treatment for each repetition.
Consists of a single movement with four main sections: the exposition, the development, the recapitulation, and the coda. The beauty of the sonata is the drama and melody it creates using this variation of themes.
The appeal is in the movement that travels from stability to conflict in the exposition, to heightened tension in the development, and then to resolution of conflict and stability in the recapitulation and coda. The sonata allows numerous variations and thus offers flexibility in composition.
Renowned composers of the Classical period like Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven used the sonata extensively, and each maintained an individual style. The versatility of the sonata has led to its continued use up through the modern era. A prime characteristic of an exposition is that it builds a strong conflict between a new key and a tonic key, and between the first group of themes and the second group of themes.
The exposition begins with the first theme in the tonic or home key. A transition or bridge leads to the second theme. This second theme is in a new key. The transition from the home key to the new key creates a change in mood and, at the same time, creates harmonic tension with forward motion. The closing of the exposition occurs in the second theme's key. This closing has a repeat sign in the score sheet. Musicians thus have to play the exposition one more time. Development is the name given to this section because new themes are developed here.
It starts in the same keys that ended the exposition. The dramatic effect created by an intensified harmonic tension identifies the development section. In the development section, themes are broken into short musical ideas called motives. Composers can weave different texture of themes in a composition with motives. For example, a composer can change the melody or rhythm to create aggressive sound in a comic theme, or produce a complex polyphonic texture by using different instruments to shift a motive rapidly.
As the name indicates, the recapitulation of a sonata repeats or summarizes the exposition. The first theme, second theme, bridge, and concluding section of the exposition use the tonic key in the recapitulation.
The chief difference between the exposition and the recapitulation is that the second section of the exposition becomes the main key of the recapitulation. A composer can also choose to change the texture and remove or develop new sections in the recapitulation.
Composers can give a further powerful effect to the conclusion of a sonata form with the coda, which ends in the tonic key. Codas repeat themes or develop new ones. A composer can choose to create a brief coda or an elaborate one, depending on creativity and choice of composition. Beethoven's Symphony No. Theme and variations. Here, a theme repeats several times with variations to the melody and harmony in each repetition.
Despite the variations, there is an unmistakable relation between each repetition and the original theme. Each variation can have a change of rhythm, melody, tone color, dynamics, accompaniment, or harmony. On applying such changes, each variation may differ in mood from the theme. Therefore, the variations become uniquely individual, but often have the same length as the theme.
Introducing theme and variations could be as simple as adding a few notes to a melody or changing the theme's time signature. Composers can determine the duration of theme and variations from a few seconds to several minutes and the number of variations to add to the main theme.
When a new melody accompanies the original melody, the new melody becomes a countermelody. The dancing involved small steps, curtsies, and bows, which made the dance a dignified and graceful one.
Throughout the eighteenth century, aristocrats danced the minuet. Eventually, the musical form that accompanied the dance evolved into the minuet and trio. In a set of two dances, trio was the name given to the second dance. Three instruments generally play a trio. The tempo is generally moderate and the time signature is in triple meter.
The trio usually has woodwind solos and sounds softer than the minuet does. However, composers sometimes use more than three instruments in the B section of minuets. ABA form of movement. A section of the minuet has smaller parts a, b, and a variation of a as a'. The smaller parts are repeated in the opening A section minuet : a repeated ba' repeated. Similarly, smaller parts repeat in the B section trio : c repeated dc' repeated. A repeat sign in the score sheet indicates the repetition.
The entire A section repeats at the close of the B section. The words da capo indicate this in the musical score. Da capo simply marks the beginning. Here, the minuet is played without repetitions: a ba'. It follows the A-B-A form and triple meter. However, it moves quickly and generates energy and rhythm, which creates rough humor.
The intention is to portray humor in music; in fact, the word scherzo is an Italian word that means joke. Most of Beethoven's compositions have a scherzo as the third movement.
Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik is an example of a serenade. The combination of a loud, staccato section with a minuet that sounds soft and intimate creates this beautiful serenade. As a musical form, the rondo has a main theme A with a pleasing and lively sound, which returns many times in alteration with other themes. The main theme of a rondo is often in a tonic key.
Musicians can use the rondo as an independent piece or as a single movement in a sonata, string quartet, or symphony. Finales may also use a rondo because of the lively musical feeling it brings in conclusion. The Classical Symphony. A symphony is long in length, lasting from twenty to forty-five minutes while playing with the dynamics and tone color of an orchestra. Naturally, it creates a variety of emotions and mood. A classical symphony has four movements that follow a sequence: first, a vigorous movement; second, a lyrical slow movement; third, a dancelike movement such as that of a minuet or scherzo; and fourth, a brilliant, fast movement.
The first movement contributes a dramatic effect to the symphony, consisting of a development of short motives. Melodies appear in the second movement, as either a sonata or a theme and variations. The third movement generally has a moderate or quick tempo, preferably that of a minuet and trio. Haydn and Mozart used the third movement in this manner, while Beethoven preferred energetic scherzos in the third movement.
Finally, the fourth movement acts as the climax of the entire symphony and is fast with a lighter mood than that of the first movement. It is generally a sonata or sonata-rondo. During the Classical period, musicians played symphonies for palace concerts and concert halls. The movements of a classical symphony complement each other with a variety of emotions that finally appear to balance the music.
The Classical Concerto. A concerto consists of a soloist and an orchestra, where the soloist is a star performer playing with a wide variety of dynamics over the tone color of the orchestra. The challenging exchanges of musical dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra enthrall the audience. The musical arrangement is such that at any one moment, the orchestra accompanies the soloist by playing a melody, and at another, the soloist may play arpeggios broken chords along with the woodwinds playing the main theme of the musical composition.
Solo instruments used in concertos include the piano, horn, cello, violin, bassoon, clarinet, and trumpet. Beethoven and Mozart usually preferred the piano as the solo instrument. Listen to this concerto to understand the amazing way a soloist and an orchestra can converse with music. In contrast to a classical symphony's four movements, a classical concerto has three movements: the first is fast, the second is slow, and the third is fast again.
In addition, the concerto does not have a minuet or scherzo. The duration of a concerto is usually from twenty to forty-five minutes. A classical concerto starts with a sonata that contains two expositions. The orchestra plays the first exposition. Then, after suspense builds, the soloist plays the second exposition. The soloist is often the composer of a classical concerto.
When the first or last movement has a special musical piece, the unaccompanied piece is a cadenza. In the score sheet, a pause sign called a fermata indicates the entry of the cadenza. Thus, while playing the music at the end of the first or last movement, the orchestra suspends forward motion with a brief dissonant chord.
Then the soloist plays broken chords and powerful scale passages, all without the orchestra. Even the themes have new keys in the cadenza. Finally, when the soloist decides to end the cadenza, he or she plays a long trill and then a chord to allow the smooth re-entry of the orchestra.
During the eighteenth century, soloists generally improvised the cadenzas. Many composers chose to write cadenzas directly in their scores after the eighteenth century. As a musical form, the requiem is a mass for the dead. Mozart composed nine movements of his Requiem in D-minor and half-finished the tenth one on his deathbed.
Classical Chamber Music. The practice during the Classical period was such that aristocrats played chamber music with friends or hired musicians to play it for their guests' entertainment. A small group of musicians plays chamber music—usually from two to nine musicians, with each playing a separate part.
There is no conductor to conduct the piece. Each team member coordinates with the others on dynamics and phrasing to create a subtle and intimate music performance.
The string quartet is the most common form of classical chamber music. It usually has parts for two violins, a viola, and a cello.
These quartets consist of four movements: the first is fast, the second is slow, the third is a minuet or scherzo, and the fourth is fast. Due to the nature of a string quartet, the music often draws comparisons with conversations between lively and intellectual people. Joseph Haydn. From an early age, Haydn showed immense interest in music. However, being from a poor household where his father made wagon wheels, Haydn's only exposure to music was through the folk songs his father sang and peasant dances during festivities.
When his family realized his talent in music, they sent Haydn to a relative for basic music lessons for two years. Later, a grown-up Haydn found it difficult to manage a job and support himself. Fortunately, in , the powerful and rich Eszterhazy family Hungarian nobility appointed Haydn as their official music composer.
Haydn served the noble family for almost thirty years, composing for performances in their palaces. When Haydn's music grew popular in Europe, he left for London in On returning to Vienna as a well-known celebrity in , Haydn composed two oratories: The Creation and The Seasons Haydn was a trailblazer in the world of classical music.
He was one of the three masters of the symphony and is referred to as the "father of the symphony" and the "father of the string quartet. Haydn's symphonies and string quartets are his most important works. His most popular symphonies are Surprise No. Listen to one of Haydn's string quartets. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The talented young Mozart traveled through Europe and England, touring from the age of six to fifteen. So immense was his musical talent that the pope knighted him.
At the age of fifteen, Mozart went back to Salzburg, ruled at the time by a new tyrant prince-archbishop. Mozart could not gain more than a subordinate seat in the court orchestra.
Despite numerous tries, he could not find a suitable position as a music composer, and he spent his adulthood struggling to find jobs. His relationship with his patron prince-archbishop grew sour, and by , he left for Vienna.
Mozart was successful in Vienna for the first few years and wrote popular operas such as The Abduction from the Seraglio , The Marriage of Figaro , and Don Giovanni Later, his success declined because people began criticizing his work as dark with dissonance, which made him grow desolate. However, during his last year, Mozart's new creations revived his popularity. At that time, he wrote the well-known opera The Magic Flute, and he half-finished a requiem.
Mozart died on December 5, due to rheumatic fever. Mozart greatly advanced classical music. His style was similar to that of Haydn, who liked and praised Mozart for his versatility and talent. Mozart composed music with ease, and his music conveyed power and elegance in a pleasant way.
Mike has developed his own curriculum, laying down the foundations for traditional techniques in modern drumming with rudiments, basic beats, and reading drum notation for beginner to advanced students. Read More. Time Traveler for showcase The first known use of showcase was in See more words from the same year. Kids Definition of showcase. Comments on showcase What made you want to look up showcase? Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Love words?
Need even more definitions? A linguistic analysis of a notorious pronunciation On Contractions of Multiple Words You all would not have guessed some of these Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts.
Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Theme and Variations Theme and variations is a very common musical structure you will come across, especially in classical music. How are Variations Created? Here are the most common elements of music which are changed: Melody — composers will change the original melody in a number of different ways.
How to Compose Theme and Variations Composing theme and variations is extremely rewarding as a composer as it will push you on to new levels. Related Posts. What do you want to learn?
Search for:. In addition he has had personal percussion sessions with the world famous solo percussionist Dame Evelyn Glennie. Over ten years of karate practice has inspired Heigo to combine the movements of karate with his percussion playing. Chien is a member of the Twincussion percussion duo and the director of Punch Percussion Group.
Chien started learning percussion at a very early age, specializing in all kind of drums. While Chien was obtaining his Bachelor in Taipei University of Art TNUA , he was also a member of the well-known Ju Percussion Group from to , during which Chien developed much of his percussion performing skills and obtained teaching experience.
He performed with Ju Percussion Group in Sacheon international percussion Festival in , and various percussion ensemble concerts in Shanghai, Peking, Shenzhen from to with over concerts in this period. While in school, he got first place of "Guandu Chamber Music Prize.
Chien is a member of the Twincussion percussion duo and co-director of Punch Percussion Group. Chien started learning percussion at a very early age, specializing in marimba.
He is also a member of the well-known Ju Percussion Group from to , during which Chien developed much of his percussion performing skills and obtained teaching experience. He performed with Ju Percussion Group in Sacheon international percussion Festival in , and various percussion ensemble concerts in Shanhai, Peking, Shenzheg from to He also cofounded Twincussion, a percussion duo previously known as Percatwins, attended the International Percussion Competition of Luxembourg representing Taiwan, and also took part in a few international academic exchange programs with the Peking Conservatory in China, Musashino Academia Musicae, and Toho Gakuen School of Music in Tokyo.
He finished his studies with honors degree. He has participated in many concerts and tours as a soloist, chamber music or orchestral player, and he has been a part of many international courses and masterclass with many prestigious percussionists. As of today, he is planing many concerts around the world with his percussion duo, Barcodes.
Now Manuel has the delight to take part in the World Percussion Group. He started to study percussion at the age of 6, in "E. He is now teaching percussion in some music schools: "E. M Josep Rosell" in Sumacarcer, "E. M Bicorp" or "E. M Quesa. He is well versed in a wide range of both western and world music styles.
He has also participated in several excursions to Ghana, West Africa, to study traditional African music and has given numerous lectures and performances in various world music genres.
Since the age of 14 when he became the student of Mr. He was admitted in Shanghai Conservatory of Music with the highest score in the subject exam in , and entered the graduate school of Shanghai Conservatory of Music with the full state sponsorship in In , he was appointed as a Cadeson brand spokesperson.
Born and raised in South Brunswick NJ, he became interested in the drums around age 9. Ryan has always had a love for jazz and has been studying drum set since middle school. Soon enough music became the center of his life. During his time at Rowan, Ryan has had the chance to perform in various ensembles and chamber groups. Ryan hopes to continue his studies and performances as a percussionist so he can one day bring a truly fulfilling education to his future students.
Petersburg, Russia Day off to further explore Russia at your leisure. Jean Geoffroy. Ju Tzong-Ching.