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Episode 1. A gold digger attempting to lure Scrooge into marriage. Hawking pursued his work in physics: in he co-edited a book on Euclidean quantum gravity with Gary Gibbons and published a collected edition of his own articles on black holes and the Big Bang. In the series he is introduced in the episode "The House of the Lucky Gander! Hawking was concerned that he was viewed as a lazy and difficult student.

Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 7 August CBC News. Archived from the original on 17 March The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 1 April National Post. Agence France-Presse. BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 4 November The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 29 August Archived from the original on 7 September Fundamental Physics Prize.

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In the series, Scrooge is constantly seeking ways to further increase his wealth his favorite pastime appears to be treasure hunting , and to avoid losing it. He is a self-made billionaire who left Scotland in his youth and came to America with his Number One Dime , eventually establishing his home in McDuck Manor and erecting his famous Money Bin. Born in Scotland in the mid 19th Century and getting rich during the Klondike Gold Rush in the s, his decreased aging has been explained by him spending time "stuck in a timeless demon dimension".

They were originally created for the comics by Ted Osborne and Al Taliaferro in In the series, the triplets are sent to Scrooge to stay with him, while Donald leaves to join the navy.

They are identical in appearance and personality, and wear identical outfits — a cap and jumper — with the only difference between each of them being the color of their clothing: Huey wears red, Dewey wears blue, and Louie wears green. The introduction of this scheme by DuckTales was adapted for later use in future animations that featured the triplets. Avery Schreiber provided the voice for the adult Huey, Dewey and Louie in a possible future scenario in the episode "Duck to the Future".

In the series, Huey short for Hubert , Dewey Dewford , and Louie Llewellyn are depicted as slightly older, and given distinct appearances, voices and personalities — Huey is the eldest of the triplets and the smartest of the group, a devoted Junior Woodchuck wearing a red short-sleeved shirt and cap; Dewey, wearing a blue long-sleeved T-shirt, is both the most adventurous and the most sensitive of the siblings, as well as the one most eager to find out whatever happened to their mother Della; and Louie, dressed in a green hoodie, is the youngest of the trio, the most money-obsessed and laid-back brother, jokingly described as the " evil triplet ".

Although all three are mischievous and sneaky around Donald, they are wide-eyed admirers of Scrooge's fortune and the legends of his adventures. Initially, the trio are sent to stay with Scrooge while Donald attends a job interview during the premiere episode, [5] but after renewing Scrooge's spirit for adventure and Dewey accidentally wrecking their houseboat , Donald and the nephews move into McDuck Manor and accompany him on his new adventures.

Della had initially wanted to name her sons "Jet, Turbo, and Rebel", respectively; but Donald came up with their current names in her absence. Beakley and created for the DuckTales show. In the series, she is characterized as younger than the nephews, despite being the same size. She is a tenderhearted girl who is always seen carrying her "Quacky-Patch" doll. Her love for animals is a recurring theme, be it penguins, [11] koalas, [12] dinosaurs, [13] or even the Yeti.

In the series, Webby is around the boys' age, being an intellectual nerd and somewhat of an athletic tomboy , with her character wearing a pink and blue sweater vest, a purple skirt, and a smaller hairbow on her right-side. She is revealed to be an enthusiastic adventure fan and Clan McDuck historian who idolizes Scrooge McDuck as one of the greatest adventurers of all time. While the boys find her slightly intimidating upon their first meeting, they soon accept her as a close friend and surrogate sister, as her optimism and energy often help encourage them.

He is an able flyer, but is somewhat incompetent and rarely ever lands a plane safely, usually crashing them and walking away without injury. In the series, he uses the motto "If it has wings, I can crash it". He is introduced in the third part of the pilot episode, [20] but has been Scrooge's pilot since his early youth.

The character later appeared as a main character in Disney's Darkwing Duck. In the series, Launchpad initially works for Scrooge as his limo driver, before being placed in charge of piloting various craft including the airplane "The Sunchaser", which becomes his signature vehicle. The goofy aspects of the character have been enhanced, often giving Launchpad the role of a comic relief.

He is Jewish , [25] and has proven to be popular with the ladies [26] — a running gag includes him hooking up with exes while the others go on adventures. Like her granddaughter, Beakley is an original DuckTales character. In the series, she is shown as a gentle woman of upper middle age, sweet on her granddaughter, and typically wearing a purple dress and large white apron over her front and having two hair pins to maintain her hairstyle.

She is hired by Scrooge as a nanny for the nephews in the third part of the pilot episode, not asking for any payment other than a shelter for herself and Webby. In the series, her character is more down-to-earth than the other residents of McDuck Manor, often offering advice to Scrooge and the ducklings. She is much more resourceful than the version, and has worked for Scrooge for years prior to the series' start.

Her backstory includes a career as an agent for the secret espionage organization S. After years of being overprotective of Webby, the nephews' arrival causes her to agree to let her granddaughter be a part of Scrooge's adventures. B" and the two don't get along at first; though when the kids are kidnapped by the Beagle Boys, they join forces and eventually gain respect for each other. In the series, his appearance was deliberately downplayed, in order to give more focus to Scrooge and the boys.

In the series, Donald's role is significantly increased to involve him in the adventures of Scrooge and his nephews, which included changing a part of his background with his uncle. In the reboot, he, Della, and Scrooge used to adventure together, until Della's disappearance caused Donald to cut off contact with Scrooge; not speaking to him for the next decade and raising Della's children in her absence.

In addition to increasing his appearance, the reboot also sees him wearing the black sailor suit that he wears in many of the comics upon which the show is based. Like in the comics, Donald's main character traits are his bad luck and short temper, while he's also struggling to be a good parent figure to his nephews.

In "Whatever Happened to Donald Duck?! After Della had the triplets and taking anger management counseling with Jones , he channeled his anger into protecting his nephews like they were his kids. While the character had previously appeared in Disney comics, the Ducktales series marks her first on-screen appearance in any animated media. Prior to the events of the series, she used to go adventuring with her brother and uncle, and just like how Donald mostly wears a sailor shirt, Della typically sports a pilot's outfit.

When she got caught in a cosmic storm, Scrooge tried to guide her through it, but contact with The Spear was lost. Donald, blaming Scrooge for Della's disappearance, cut off all contact with his uncle and raised the triplets by himself, while Scrooge spent years trying to find his niece until his board of directors cut the expenses.

Ten years after the crash she encountered the hidden Lunar civilization of the Moonlanders. The Beagle Boys are the show's most frequently appearing antagonists; a large family of dogs , constantly trying to rob banks or Scrooge's Money Bin.

They were originally created by Carl Barks in , and given individual names, looks, and personalities for their DuckTales incarnation, which is introduced in the five-part pilot.

The series version of the Beagle Boys include seven main Beagle Boys, with four of them appearing throughout the series:.

The series also include several minor Beagle Boys, who have not appeared in the series as of yet:. Later on in the series, additional members of the Beagle family always voiced by Eric Bauza keep appearing:. Early Barks sketches for Scrooge and Glomgold show remarkable similarities, especially in temperament. While the comics originally depicted Glomgold as a native of South Africa , due to the internationally criticized South African apartheid politics of the s, Glomgold was rewritten to be of Scottish descent for DuckTales.

In the series, he first appears in the second part of the pilot episode, [76] and typically comes up with schemes to earn money at Scrooge's expense, in order to surpass Scrooge and capture the title of the world's richest duck. In the series, debuting in the hour long pilot episode "Woo-oo! Glomgold's aversion towards Scrooge is both personal and professional, as he doesn't shy away from attempting to kill him and even shows up at his ultimately fake funeral to celebrate his death before he is even buried.

Beakley and fondness for Duckworth. After meeting Scrooge, who refused to pay him properly for polishing his shoes in an attempt to teach him self-reliance and hard work, he adopted the name "Flintheart Glomgold" and swore to beat Scrooge in every way possible; including becoming the world's richest duck and proving himself as "the most Scottish" between them.

He seemingly won after Louie convinced the other villains to pool their resources with Glomgold's, but he ends up losing everything to the young Duck because "Flintheart Glomgold" isn't his real name and he signed a contract stating everything would revert to his partner Louie ; forcing him to escape from the angry villains after they turn on him.

Magica is convinced that the dime has magic powers that will help her to gain world domination. In the series, Magica, making her first appearance in "Send in the Clones", [59] is living on a distant island, inside a volcano in the shape of her head. Her accent is Eastern European, and she is often assisted by her brother Poe, who has been trapped in the shape of a raven. In the series, Magica is "a vile sorceress with a mysterious, ancient grudge against Clan McDuck".

At the last second though, she used a spell to create Lena from a part of her shadow, thus remaining in contact with the outside world. Eventually, Magica is defeated by the Duck Family and rendered powerless; forcing her to escape. He cares more about his own image and popularity than his fortune, where he has many followers on social media as well as back-up phones if any one of them gets destroyed. Beaks Unmanned Driver Drone Yay , malfunctions.

Growing jealous of the new star's rising popularity however, he decides to wear the Gizmosuit himself, but ends up causing mayhem before he's stopped by Fenton.

Dubbing himself "Mega-Beaks", he severely damages Gyro's lab and the Gizmo-suit, kidnaps Huey and Webby, and attacks his own company before being confronted by Fenton and Gandra, who manages to defeat him and turn him back to normal.

Louie exposes Beaks' deception, leading Doofus to drop him into his "Honey Bin". Lunaris voiced by Lance Reddick — General Lunaris is a high-ranking Moonlander exclusive to the series, who encounters Della during her years stuck on the Moon. After Della fixes the Spear of Selene and returns to Earth, Lunaris deceives his people into thinking that Della is their enemy, and declares war on Earth.

Though he nearly catches Donald, the determined duck is able to escape to Earth in Lunaris' prototype rocket; leading the Moonlander to believe he couldn't have survived. However, due to an unpredictable scheme by Glomgold, he is defeated by Scrooge's family and Penumbra; leaving his engine adrift in Earth's orbit as its new moon, much to his dismay. Inspired by the terrorist organization S. In said episode, the group plotted to destroy all the world's money; leading the Duckburg Intelligence Agency to ask Launchpad to infiltrate their ranks due to his strong resemblance to one of their agents.

Their members included Dr. In the series, F. Beakley then known as Agent 22 , teams up with Scrooge as part of a S. Despite having "Duck" in his name, he is actually an anthropomorphic dog. In the series, he worked for Scrooge even before the nephews moved in, and was Scrooge's only household servant until the hiring of Mrs. He first appears in the first part of the pilot episode, [8] and appears as a supporting character throughout the series, serving both as butler and chauffeur.

He plays a bigger part in the episode "Duckworth's Revolt", where he and the nephews get abducted by aliens where he explained the difference between employment and slavery to their fellow prisoners, [] and in the episode-segment "Take Me Out of the Ballgame" where he acts as the temporary coach of the Junior Woodchuck baseball team.

In the series, Duckworth died years prior to the series' beginning and was mentioned to be the only one who throws Scrooge a party. His inventions often help drive an episode's plot, as they do not always work as designed. In the series he is a mild-mannered, although somewhat absent minded, man who often works for Scrooge, designing anything from time machines [] to relocation rays. In the series, debuting in the episode "The Great Dime Chase!



Their members included Dr. In the series, F. Beakley then known as Agent 22 , teams up with Scrooge as part of a S. Despite having "Duck" in his name, he is actually an anthropomorphic dog. In the series, he worked for Scrooge even before the nephews moved in, and was Scrooge's only household servant until the hiring of Mrs. He first appears in the first part of the pilot episode, [8] and appears as a supporting character throughout the series, serving both as butler and chauffeur.

He plays a bigger part in the episode "Duckworth's Revolt", where he and the nephews get abducted by aliens where he explained the difference between employment and slavery to their fellow prisoners, [] and in the episode-segment "Take Me Out of the Ballgame" where he acts as the temporary coach of the Junior Woodchuck baseball team.

In the series, Duckworth died years prior to the series' beginning and was mentioned to be the only one who throws Scrooge a party.

His inventions often help drive an episode's plot, as they do not always work as designed. In the series he is a mild-mannered, although somewhat absent minded, man who often works for Scrooge, designing anything from time machines [] to relocation rays. In the series, debuting in the episode "The Great Dime Chase! The Lil Bulb is an invention of Gyro; a small non-speaking humanoid robot with a light bulb for a head.

In the original comic books he is named Little Helper and was created by Carl Barks in In the series his appearance is downplayed, only appearing as a minor comic relief in a handful of episodes.

Besides Lil Bulb, notable inventions of Gyro's to appear in both the and the series include the Gizmoduck suit, as well as the Time Tub — a bathtub remade into a time machine [] [9] [] [] — and the Time Teaser — a stopwatch that allows the user to freeze time. In the series he is the nephews' friend and neighbor, [] a devoted Junior Woodchuck scout, and Launchpad's sidekick.

Generally speaking, Doofus is a rather dim-witted and clumsy character, with a positive attitude as insatiable as his appetite. He exhibits hero worship for Launchpad, which frequently borders on the delusional. In the series, Doofus debuts in the episode "Day of the Only Child! When Louie, seeing the benefits of having a rich friend, tries to befriend him, Doofus rapidly grows deeply possessive of him; to the point where he tries to have him locked up in his mansion.

He reappears in the second season, first in a minor appearance during the nephews' hunt to reclaim D'jinn's lamp in the episode "Treasure of the Found Lamp! After Doofus programs Mark Beaks' robot, B. In response, Doofus swears vengeance against Louie. Featherby or Mrs. In the series she is Scrooge's mild-mannered and capable, albeit somewhat gossipy, secretary.

Dedicated to the point of obsession, she is perfectly willing to terrorize the ducklings if they refuse to heed her bizarre set of rules.

Goldie O'Gilt , a. Glittering Goldie voiced by Joan Gerber in the series; Allison Janney in the series [55] is Scrooge's longtime love interest, and an original Carl Barks character from the comic book story " Back to the Klondike ". The producers of the series has called her the Catwoman to Scrooge's Batman. In the series, she first appears in the episode based on and named after the Barks story, where her origins as a music hall singer in Dawson is shown.

Alongside Scrooge, she took part in the Klondike Gold Rush in the late 19th Century, and she explains her age by claiming to have found "a fountain of youth in Ronguay". While she admittingly "always loved gold more than she loved Scrooge", the pair's mutual affection and respect go deep.

Following a series of double-crosses and being held hostage by Doofus, Goldie eventually gets what she came for, but keeps a picture of Louie to remember him by.

Ludwig Von Drake voiced by Corey Burton is an established Disney character, appearing in several Disney animation productions beginning in In the series, he only makes one appearance, as a psychiatrist treating Launchpad in the episode "The Golden Fleecing". In the series, he is an old colleague of Scrooge's, [] and debuts in "From the Confidential Case Files of Agent 22!

Tompkins in the series [55] is Donald's cousin, debuting in Carl Barks' " Wintertime Wager " from Much to his relatives' annoyance, he is unfailingly lucky. In the series he foremost appears in the episodes "Dime Enough for Luck", where Magica tries to use his good luck to steal Scrooge's Number One Dime, [] but he is also seen bidding at an auction in "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. In the series he is introduced in the episode "The House of the Lucky Gander!

While the mother and father of Scrooge occasionally have appeared or been referred to in the comics, the names Downy and Fergus were created for their appearances in Don Rosa 's part comic book series " The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck ".

In the series, Scrooge's parents are simply referred to as "MacMama" and "MacPapa", and they appear in flashbacks in the episode "Once Upon a Dime", [2] where they are shown living as farmers in a small cottage. They are also alluded to in the episode "The Curse of Castle McDuck", which also mentioned the family castle being build by Scrooge's great-great-grandfather Silas McDuck, a character who makes his only appearance here. Scrooge and Fergus' relationship is shown to be a conflicted one, while Downy happily greets her visiting family.

Along with Scrooge's parents, the series pilot also refers to several additional members of Clan McDuck and the Duck family , including Scrooge's grandfather Dingus and sister Matilda , and Donald's parents Hortense sister of Scrooge and Matilda and Quackmore. The character was originally pitched by Tad Stones as "Bubbaduck". In the series, he first appears in the five-part episode "Time Is Money", which opens season two.

To accommodate Bubba, Scrooge builds a replica of his original habitat on the McDuck Manor property, and eventually he starts attending the same school class as Webby and the triplets.

In the series, Bubba and Tootsie are introduced in "Timephoon", where Louie's latest get-rich-quick scheme involving Gyro Gearloose's Time Tub causes historical people including Bubba and Tootsie to appear in the present while sending Scrooge and his family to different time periods.

Bubba proves to be highly adaptive, immediately adjusting to life in the future, and is implied to be the original ancestor of Clan McDuck. Meanwhile, Tootsie is re-imagined as a very aggressive young dinosaur, with no relationship with Bubba as she hails from a much earlier time period than him.

Fenton Crackshell or Fenton Crackshell-Cabrera , a. Gizmoduck voiced by Hamilton Camp in the series; Eric Bauza in DuckTales: Remastered ; Lin-Manuel Miranda in the series is an everyday office clerk who accidentally becomes the robotic superhero Gizmoduck. The Gizmoduck character was originally pitched by Tad Stones as "Roboduck" inspired by the movie " RoboCop " , alongside "Bubbaduck" which evolved into Bubba the Caveduck and "Spaceduck" who never made it to the show , and made his debut in the second season.

In the series, Fenton doubles as Scrooge's accountant as himself and his personal bodyguard as Gizmoduck , hired by Scrooge in the five-part story "Super DuckTales". Furthermore, his regular dogged attempts to rectify his mistakes tends to make things worse until he ultimately succeeds. He exhibits a remarkably different personality in his role as Gizmoduck a dual identity only known to Scrooge and Fenton's mother , as his high-powered suit gives him courage to make daring decisions and act as a strong leader and a hero.

Aside from Fenton, other characters to temporarily use the Gizmo-suit include Launchpad, [] M'Ma Crackshell, [] and the nephews and Webby. After receiving the Gizmo-suit, Fenton is hired by Scrooge to guard Duckburg as the armored superhero. In the series, she is a couch potato who spends most of her time in her trailer home watching soap operas in her bathrobe, and debuts alongside her son in the five-part story "Super DuckTales".

In the series, she is reimagined as a no-nonsense Latina detective for the Duckburg Police Department. Gandra Dee voiced by Miriam Flynn in the series, Jameela Jamil in the series [] is Fenton's love-interest, whose name is a pun on the actress Sandra Dee.

In the series, following her introduction as a minor character in the five-part episode "Super DuckTales", which end with her and Fenton's first date, [64] [57] [] Gandra reappears in "Metal Attraction", where she and Fenton have become a couple amidst the robot Robotica attempts to kill her after falling in love with Gizmoduck, [] "The Big Flub", where she stars in a series of commercials directed by Fenton so he can get promoted, [] and "The Duck Who Knew Too Much", where she and Fenton go on vacation but get involved with international spies.

In the series, she is reimagined as a rebel scientist, debuting in "The Dangerous Chemistry of Gandra Dee! Although initially assisting Beaks, she turns on him when he endangers Huey and Webby and helps Gizmoduck to stop him before making a stealthy exit. In the continuity, Dijon debuted in the movie, as an inept thief with kleptomania , working for the wizard Merlock. Thereafter, he returns for three of the final five episodes produced for the series.

In the episode "Attack of the Metal Mites" he is seen working for Glomgold, [] and in the two-part series finale "The Golden Goose", he is reunited with his estranged brother, Poupon. In the series, he has been reimagined as a jackal and a fierce adventurer named Faris D'jinn — an ally of Scrooge, noted for being the descendant of an actual genie.

He debuts in "Treasure of the Found Lamp! As such, he's targeted by the evil sorcerer, Merlock, but eventually ends up becoming a real boy and a friend of the kids of McDuck Manor. Gene is due to appear in the series' third season. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Lena De Spell.

Season 1. Episode Episode 1. Episode 3. Season 2. Episode 4. Retrieved Los Angeles Times. Episode 2. Episode 9. Episode 8. Episode 6. Episode 5. The A. Mental Floss. Episode 7. Deadline Hollywood. Entertainment Weekly. Season 3. Season 4. The FW. Darkwing Duck. Season 1 Disney Afternoon. Nintendo Times. September 13, April 25, The Futon Critic. Retrieved October 25, Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color. Season 8. Disney Press.

Retrieved August 11, Animation World Network. Season 1 ABC. July 19, Hollywood Life. August 16, May Disney core universe characters. Rockerduck Magica De Spell.

Categories : DuckTales Disney core universe characters Lists of characters in American television animation Lists of Disney television series characters Lists of fictional animals by work Lists of fictional animals in animation. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list. In August , Hawking said that not all information is lost when something enters a black hole and there might be a possibility to retrieve information from a black hole according to his theory.

Hawking's final paper — A smooth exit from eternal inflation? Hawking met his future wife, Jane Wilde , at a party in The following year, Hawking was diagnosed with motor neuron disease. In October , the couple became engaged to marry, aware of the potential challenges that lay ahead due to Hawking's shortened life expectancy and physical limitations. During their first years of marriage, Jane lived in London during the week as she completed her degree at Westfield College.

They travelled to the United States several times for conferences and physics-related visits. The couple had three children: Robert, born May , [] [] Lucy , born November , [] and Timothy, born April Hawking accepted, and Bernard Carr travelled with them as the first of many students who fulfilled this role.

Hawking returned to Cambridge in to a new home and a new job, as reader. Don Page , with whom Hawking had begun a close friendship at Caltech, arrived to work as the live-in graduate student assistant. With Page's help and that of a secretary, Jane's responsibilities were reduced so she could return to her doctoral thesis and her new interest in singing. Hellyer Jones became close to the Hawking family, and by the mids, he and Jane had developed romantic feelings for each other.

By the s, Hawking's marriage had been strained for many years. Jane felt overwhelmed by the intrusion into their family life of the required nurses and assistants. In the late s, Hawking grew close to one of his nurses, Elaine Mason, to the dismay of some colleagues, caregivers, and family members, who were disturbed by her strength of personality and protectiveness. In , Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars , describing her marriage to Hawking and its breakdown.

Its revelations caused a sensation in the media but, as was his usual practice regarding his personal life, Hawking made no public comment except to say that he did not read biographies about himself. In , Hawking and Mason quietly divorced, [] [] and Hawking resumed closer relationships with Jane, his children, and his grandchildren. Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease MND; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , " ALS ", or Lou Gehrig 's disease , a terminal illness that affects and causes the degeneration of motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, which gradually paralysed him over decades.

Hawking had experienced increasing clumsiness during his final year at Oxford, including a fall on some stairs and difficulties when rowing. At the time, doctors gave him a life expectancy of two years.

In the late s, Hawking's physical abilities declined: he began to use crutches and could no longer give lectures regularly. He preferred to be regarded as "a scientist first, popular science writer second, and, in all the ways that matter, a normal human being with the same desires, drives, dreams, and ambitions as the next person.

I've called it both at one time or another. When Hawking first began using a wheelchair in the late s he was using standard motorised models. Hawking used a variety of different chairs from that time, including a DragonMobility Dragon elevating powerchair from , as shown in the April photo of Hawking attending NASA's 50th anniversary; [] a Permobil C from ; and then a Permobil F3 from Hawking's speech deteriorated, and by the late s he could be understood by only his family and closest friends.

To communicate with others, someone who knew him well would interpret his speech into intelligible speech. During a visit to CERN on the border of France and Switzerland in mid, Hawking contracted pneumonia , which in his condition was life-threatening; he was so ill that Jane was asked if life support should be terminated. She refused, but the consequence was a tracheotomy , which required round-the-clock nursing care and the removal of what remained of his speech.

The cost of the care was funded by an American foundation. One of those employed was Elaine Mason, who was to become Hawking's second wife. For his communication, Hawking initially raised his eyebrows to choose letters on a spelling card , [] but in he received a computer program called the "Equalizer" from Walter Woltosz, CEO of Words Plus, who had developed an earlier version of the software to help his mother-in-law, who also suffered from ALS and had lost her ability to speak and write.

Elaine Mason's husband, David, a computer engineer, adapted a small computer and attached it to his wheelchair. Released from the need to use somebody to interpret his speech, Hawking commented that "I can communicate better now than before I lost my voice. Hawking gradually lost the use of his hand, and in he began to control his communication device with movements of his cheek muscles, [] [] [] with a rate of about one word per minute.

After several prototypes that did not perform as planned, they settled on an adaptive word predictor made by the London-based startup SwiftKey , which used a system similar to his original technology. Hawking had an easier time adapting to the new system, which was further developed after inputting large amounts of Hawking's papers and other written materials and uses predictive software similar to other smartphone keyboards. By , he could no longer drive his wheelchair independently, but the same people who created his new typing mechanics were working on a method to drive his chair using movements made by his chin.

This proved difficult, since Hawking could not move his neck, and trials showed that while he could indeed drive the chair, the movement was sporadic and jumpy. Starting in the s, Hawking accepted the mantle of role model for disabled people, lecturing and participating in fundraising activities. In August , Hawking narrated the "Enlightenment" segment of the Summer Paralympics opening ceremony in London. As he had pneumonia in , he was advised not to have ice poured over him, but his children volunteered to accept the challenge on his behalf.

In late , Hawking revealed in a BBC interview that one of his greatest unfulfilled desires was to travel to space; [] on hearing this, Richard Branson offered a free flight into space with Virgin Galactic , which Hawking immediately accepted.

Besides personal ambition, he was motivated by the desire to increase public interest in spaceflight and to show the potential of people with disabilities.

Hawking died at his home in Cambridge , England, on 14 March , at the age of Hawking was born on the th anniversary of Galileo's death and died on the th anniversary of Einstein's birth.

Inscribed on his memorial stone are the words "Here lies what was mortal of Stephen Hawking —" and his most famed equation. Hawking's final broadcast interview, about the detection of gravitational waves resulting from the collision of two neutron stars , occurred in October In March , it was announced that the Royal Mint issued a commemorative 50 pence coin in honour of Hawking. In , Hawking posed an open question on the Internet: "In a world that is in chaos politically, socially and environmentally, how can the human race sustain another years?

That is why I asked the question, to get people to think about it, and to be aware of the dangers we now face. Hawking expressed concern that life on Earth is at risk from a sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus , global warming , or other dangers humans have not yet thought of.

Hawking stated that, given the vastness of the universe, aliens likely exist, but that contact with them should be avoided. In he said, "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans.

Hawking warned that superintelligent artificial intelligence could be pivotal in steering humanity's fate, stating that "the potential benefits are huge Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history.

It might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. Hawking was concerned about the future emergence of a race of "superhumans" that would be able to design their own evolution [] and, as well, argued that computer viruses in today's world should be considered a new form of life, stating that "maybe it says something about human nature, that the only form of life we have created so far is purely destructive. Talk about creating life in our own image. At Google's Zeitgeist Conference in , Hawking said that "philosophy is dead".

He believed that philosophers "have not kept up with modern developments in science" and that scientists "have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge". He said that philosophical problems can be answered by science, particularly new scientific theories which "lead us to a new and very different picture of the universe and our place in it". Hawking was an atheist [] [] and believed that "the universe is governed by the laws of science".

He stated: "There is a fundamental difference between religion, which is based on authority, [and] science, which is based on observation and reason. Science will win because it works. We are each free to believe what we want and it is my view that the simplest explanation is there is no God. No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realisation. There is probably no heaven, and no afterlife either.

We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that, I am extremely grateful. Hawking's association with atheism and freethinking was in evidence from his university years onwards, when he had been a member of Oxford University's humanist group.

He was later scheduled to appear as the keynote speaker at a Humanists UK conference. Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe. But now science offers a more convincing explanation.

What I meant by 'we would know the mind of God' is, we would know everything that God would know, if there were a God, which there isn't. I'm an atheist. Hawking was a longstanding Labour Party supporter. Hawking was greatly concerned over health care, and maintained that without the UK National Health Service , he could not have survived into his 70s. I believe in universal health care. And I am not afraid to say so. Hawking feared privatisation. He stated, "The more profit is extracted from the system, the more private monopolies grow and the more expensive healthcare becomes.

The NHS must be preserved from commercial interests and protected from those who want to privatise it. But he was also critical of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn , expressing scepticism over whether the party could win a general election under him. Hawking feared Donald Trump 's policies on global warming could endanger the planet and make global warming irreversible.

He said, "Climate change is one of the great dangers we face, and it's one we can prevent if we act now. By denying the evidence for climate change, and pulling out of the Paris Agreement , Donald Trump will cause avoidable environmental damage to our beautiful planet, endangering the natural world, for us and our children. In , Hawking, Arthur C. They discussed the Big Bang theory , God and the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

At the release party for the home video version of the A Brief History of Time , Leonard Nimoy , who had played Spock on Star Trek , learned that Hawking was interested in appearing on the show.

Nimoy made the necessary contact, and Hawking played a holographic simulation of himself in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in Hawking allowed the use of his copyrighted voice [] [] in the biographical film The Theory of Everything , in which he was portrayed by Eddie Redmayne in an Academy Award-winning role.

Hawking received numerous awards and honours. Hawking has made major contributions to the field of general relativity. These derive from a deep understanding of what is relevant to physics and astronomy, and especially from a mastery of wholly new mathematical techniques.

Following the pioneering work of Penrose he established, partly alone and partly in collaboration with Penrose, a series of successively stronger theorems establishing the fundamental result that all realistic cosmological models must possess singularities. Using similar techniques, Hawking has proved the basic theorems on the laws governing black holes: that stationary solutions of Einstein's equations with smooth event horizons must necessarily be axisymmetric; and that in the evolution and interaction of black holes, the total surface area of the event horizons must increase.

In collaboration with G. Ellis, Hawking is the author of an impressive and original treatise on "Space-time in the Large". The citation continues, "Other important work by Hawking relates to the interpretation of cosmological observations and to the design of gravitational wave detectors. At the Pride of Britain Awards , Hawking received the lifetime achievement award "for his contribution to science and British culture". Hawking was a member of the Advisory Board of the Starmus Festival , and had a major role in acknowledging and promoting science communication.

The Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication is an annual award initiated in to honour members of the arts community for contributions that help build awareness of science. The first recipients of the medals, which were awarded at the festival, were chosen by Hawking himself.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author. Oxford , England, United Kingdom. Cambridge , England, United Kingdom. Jane Wilde m. Elaine Mason m. General relativity Quantum gravity. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.

Further information: Stephen Hawking in popular culture. This relationship between concepts from the disparate fields of general relativity , quantum mechanics and thermodynamics implies the existence of deep connections between them and may presage their unification. It is inscribed on Hawking's memorial stone. London: Reuters.

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